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Typhus Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

Typhus or typhoid fever, occurs due to bacterial infection Salmonella typhi. Diseases that occur in children, it can endanger life if not treated properly and promptly. Typhoid symptoms generally begin to appear at 1-3 weeks after the body is infected, such as, high fever that can reach 39 ° C-40 ° C, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation. Typhus spread quickly. Infections and typhoid fever occurs when a person consumes food or beverages that have been contaminated with a small amount of feces, or less commonly, urine infected by bacteria. Direct contact with sufferers also may lead to bacterial infection of Salmonella typhi. This bacterium related to salmonella bacteria causes food poisoning.

Typhus causes

The bacteria that cause typhoid (Salmonella typhi), entered into the intestine through contaminated food or water and then multiply in the lymph nodes and blood vessels. These bacteria are related, but not equal to the salmonella bacteria that cause food poisoning someone.

Feces containing the bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major source of transmission of typhoid. Feces was produced by people who have been infected first. A similar effect occurs in food washed with contaminated water. This condition is mainly caused by poor sanitation and access to clean water.



These bacteria can also be spread when people who have been infected with the bacteria, not washing hands before touching or preparing food. The spread of the bacteria occurs when there are other people who eat foods that are touched by the sufferers.

Transmission can also occur from the urine of patients with bacteria, although this method is more rare. People who eat processed foods the sufferers will be infected if the processor does not wash his hands after urinating.

Typhus symptoms

In some people, the symptoms caused by typhus is bright red rash which is usually widespread, and severe head pain. Usually, typhus occurs in densely populated living quarters, as well as poor environmental hygiene. Other early symptoms of typhoid fever are dizziness, and headaches, as well as the body feels more sluggish and decreased appetite. Other symptoms may also occur with symptoms of diarrhea or constipation, nausea, as well as vomiting, and abdominal pain as well as flatulence.

The early symptoms of typhoid fever caused by a severe infection, the child will usually lead to delirium. In fact, the worse iscould result in lower consciousness, and seizures that occur due to metabolic abnormalities. However, the initial symptoms appear usually differ between children and adults. Symptoms that occur in children will usually be milder than by adults.

In general, the incubation period of the bacteria that cause typhoid fever (typhoid) is 7 to 14 days. It is the duration between the first bacteria to enter the body tissue until the first symptoms appear. If not handled properly, can worsen the condition of people with typhoid fever in a few weeks. Even take up to a few months until the body can fully recover. Symptoms also may reappear because they do not get treatment. In fact, if treated properly, the condition sufferers can begin to improve within 3 to 4 days.

The following are common symptoms in typhus:

  • Fever up to 39 ° C-40 ° C. In the first week, the fever will come down. In the second week, the fever rose.
  • Muscle ache
  • Headache
  • Feel faint
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Children often experience diarrhea, while adults tend to suffer from constipation
  • A rash on the skin in the form of small pink spots
  • Confusion. Feeling did not know where they are, and what is happening around


Symptoms of typhoid growing from week to week, with the following characteristics:
The first week:
  • Fever. Initially it was not so high, and then increased to 39 ° C-40 ° C
  • Headache
  • Limp and exhausted
  • hacking cough
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Skin rash
Second week:
  • If not treated immediately, you will enter the second stage of the symptoms:
  • High fever still persists
  • Diarrhea or severe constipation
  • Weight loss
  • Very bloated stomach

The third week:
  • You may be delirious and began to confusion
  • Limp and exhausted, with eyes half open

The fourth week:
  • Fever decline slowly
  • But the symptoms can be felt back after 2 weeks subsided
Immediately consult your doctor if you or your child has a high fever and some of the above symptoms, especially if it does not subside after two days. Note that while it had received the vaccine or immunization, one can still suffering from typhoid.

Typhus treatment

Antibiotic therapy is the most effective way in dealing with typhus. Treatment typhus (typhoid) can be performed in a hospital, but if more quickly detected, you can do treatment at home.

Typhus treatment at home
Generally, people are diagnosed with typhoid fever at an early stage, requiring 1-2 weeks of treatment with antibiotics prescribed tablets. Although the body will begin to improve after 2-3 days of taking antibiotics, you should not stop taking antibiotics before it runs out. It is important to ensure that the bacteria is completely gone from the body.

However, administration of antibiotics to treat typhus started to cause its own problems in Southeast Asia. Several groups of Salmonella typhi become resistant to antibiotics. In recent years, these bacteria are also becoming resistant to the antibiotic ampicillin and trimotheprim-silfamethoxazole.

Immediately consult a doctor if your condition worsens while undergoing treatment at home. In a minority of sufferers, the disease may recur again. For your body to recover quickly and prevent the risk of typhoid come again, make sure you go through the simple steps below:
  • Adequate rest
  • Eat regularly. You can eat as often as possible in levels of less than if large meals three times a day
  • Drink lots of water
  • Wash your hands regularly with soap and warm water to reduce the risk of spread of infection

Treatment of typhus in hospital
Samples of blood, feces, and urine will be checked in the lab to determine what type of appropriate antibiotics is given. Antibiotics in hospital will be given in the form of injections. If necessary, fluid and nutrition will also be injected into a vein through an IV.

Infusion is given for the treatment of typhoid were performed in hospitals are generally accompanied by persistent vomiting, severe diarrhea, and flatulence. In rare cases, surgery may be needed in case of life-threatening complications such as bleeding or damage to the digestive system.

Almost all people with the condition gradually improved after being treated in hospital for 3-4 days. However, it may take several weeks until you are fully recovered.

Typhus prevention

Asia is an area of endemic typhus. This disease generally occurs in countries with poor hygiene and sanitation. In addition to Asia, countries in Central and South America, the Middle East, and Africa is also an area with a high rate of typhoid. Typhoid vaccine, do not make 100% a person immune to these bacteria. The risk is still there, even though symptoms will not be severe in those who have not been vaccinated.

Unfortunately in Asia, the disease thrives as a heightened level of bacterial resistance to antibiotics to treat typhoid. This resulted in several antibiotics have been unable to resist typhoid. Required preparation and dissemination of the list of drugs that are not effective so that the patient gets the right treatment.

To prevent this disease, typhoid fever vaccination should be coupled with improved sanitation and water supply, as well as healthy living habits. Consider some of the following to avoid the risk of contracting typhoid:
  • Wash hands before and after preparing food and drinks, as well as after defecation.
  • If you must buy a drink, you should drink bottled water.
  • Minimization of the consumption of foods sold at roadside for easy exposure to bacteria.
  • Avoid ice cubes in your drink. Also you should avoid buying and eating ice cream sold on the roadside.
  • Avoid consumption of raw fruits and vegetables unless you peel or wash themselves with water.
  • Limit consumption of food seafood (seafood), especially uncooked.
  • We recommend using boiled water for brushing teeth or gargling.
  • Clean toilets, doorknobs, telephones, as well as the tap water in your home on a regular basis.
  • Avoid exchanging personal items such as towels, bed linen and toiletries. Wash these objects regularly in warm water.
  • Avoid consumption of unpasteurised milk.

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