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Gingivitis Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Gingivitis is the inflammation or inflammation of the gums. Most cases of gingivitis include light to medium conditions, but should be treated as soon as possible. Gingivitis is not treated immediately, have the potential to develop into periodontitis. This serious complication, an inflammation of the gum tissue and bone, which generally lead to losing teeth.

Gingivitis is caused by untreated oral cavity. For example, for not brushing your teeth regularly, causing plaque and food debris that are still attached. Because plaque and leftover food rotting, can lead to gum swelling. Additionally, gingivitis also caused by too much smoking, stress, genetic factors, lack of vitamin C, plaque accumulation on the teeth and for their cavities. Another factor that can cause gingivitis is diabetes mellitus.


Gingivitis symptoms

The early symptoms of gingivitis are gums appear red, swollen, sore and bleed easily when touched, bad breath, pus, swaying and easily detached. There are two kinds of symptoms of inflammation of the gums, symptoms of primary and secondary symptoms. The primary symptom is characterized by swelling of the gums. As a result, the head feels dizzy and feverish. While the secondary symptoms characterized by pain when touched or exposed to brush gums ggigi. As a result, the head feels dizzy or commonly referred to migraines.

Gingivitis can cause infection through the blood vessels and damage to human organs such as the heart, lungs, brain, and eyes. If the infection is gone deep into the heart, or so-called percarlitis, or inflammation of the lining of the heart. If the infection is gone deep into the lungs, can lead to tuberculosis. If the infection is gone deep into the eye, vision problems can occur. And if the infection is gone deep into the brain will cause meningitis.

Gingivitis risk factors and causes

The main cause of gingivitis is the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of a collection of bacteria and food debris attached to the tooth surface. Invisible layer that normally would be lost by brushing. But if left on the teeth for more than 48 hours, plaque can harden and form tartar that can only be cleaned by a dentist.
  • Plaque: Plaque is a common cause of gingivitis. Plaque is an invisible layer on the surface of the teeth, which are formed by colonies of bacteria in the mouth. Plaques will be seen clearly, if the teeth are not cleaned regularly. Plaque can be removed by brushing, because consistency is soft. Plaque is not only causing the gums inflamed because of infection, but also can cause cavities.

  • Tartar: Tartar or dental calculus is formed from hardened plaque. Plaque will turn into tartar in a specified period, usually more than 10 days. Usually tartar formed in the crevice between teeth and gums that are difficult to reach by toothbrush, so the formation tends not controlled and can only be cleaned by a dentist.

  • Irritation: Allergic reactions to the ingredients contained by toothpaste, food, drug, or braces may cause irritation, redness, or swelling of the gum tissue.

  • Wrong dental care: Teeth are stretched due to the age and repaired the wrong way, it can facilitate the remnants of food stuck between teeth. And the leftovers are difficult to clean, so that eventually lead to infection. Dentures that do not fit, it can also irritate the gum tissue, causing cuts or swelling.

  • Hormones: In some women found that a change in hormone levels can cause swollen gums. This is usually temporary, with the longest case is usually associated with pregnancy.

  • Medication: If you are caring for your teeth and gums but still experience swollen gums, then it's time to check what medications you're taking. Several types of drugs, such as medications for high blood pressure, can lead to overgrowth of gum tissue that look like swollen.
Here are a few other risk factors that can increase a person's risk for developing gingivitis.

  • Smoke, or use tobacco in other forms, such as chewing tobacco. This habit will cause the gum tissue is difficult to regenerate.
  • Nutritional deficiencies.
  • Diabetes. This disease can increase the risk of infection.
  • Influence of age.
  • Infections caused by fungi and certain viruses.
  • Have a decreased immune system, such as HIV or chemotherapy.
  • The use of illegal drugs.

Gingivitis diagnosis and treatment

Gingivitis diagnosis process, beginning with the doctor asking the symptoms you are experiencing. The doctor will then examine the health of your teeth and gums to make sure the condition of the gums that are red or swollen at the same time the presence of plaque or tartar. If your cause of gingivitis is plaque or tartar, the doctor will handle it as soon as possible to prevent complications. This step is generally done by removing plaque and tartar closely by a doctor.


If there are cavities, or damaged dentures, the doctor will perform patching as well as improvements to oral health can be maintained. Oral health examination process, and cleaning your teeth regularly by the doctor also recommended. In addition to medical treatment, you can also do some simple steps to help the recovery process, including the following:
  • Brushing your teeth regularly at least twice a day, especially after eating.
  • Use a soft toothbrush and replace with new ones every 12-16 weeks.
  • Use mouthwash with antibacterial element if the doctor recommended.
  • Cleaning between the teeth with dental floss or toothpicks.
The measures mentioned above, can also help you to prevent a recurrence of inflammation of the gums, while lowering your risk for developing this disease. Dental treatment by a dentist regularly, at least twice a year, is also an effective preventive measure.

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