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Recognize These 10 Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Diabetes is often called the silent killer because it has vague symptoms. The best way to make sure everything or know the early symproms is to do a blood sugar test. Diabetes affects approximately 24 million people in the US, but only 18 million know they have it. Approximately 90% of diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes.

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes, or often called the Non Insuline Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), a diabetes caused by the body's resistance to the effects of insulin produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. This situation will cause blood sugar levels to rise uncontrollably. Obesity and a family history of suffering from diabetes, is thought to be a risk factor for this disease.



Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells found in the pancreas. In normal circumstances, the blood insulin levels will fluctuate depending on sugar content in the blood. Insulin levels will rise immediately after a meal and going downhill so we did not eat anything. The main function of insulin is to distribute the glucose contained in the blood throughout the body in order in metabolism to produce energy. When the sugar or glucose levels that exceeds the needs of the excess will be stored in the liver. Deposits of this glucose is released if necessary, for example when our body hunger.

When a person has type 2 diabetes, there are two possibilities occurred, ie, the beta cells found in the pancreas insufficient production or production insulinya enough but the body resistant to insulin. Both of these circumstances will cause blood glucose levels to rise.

Fortunately the body has a very good mechanism to notify us if there is an abnormality. It is important to know the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus early because the earlier the treatment is done then the better the results will be and the less likelihood of complications. Here are some of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes that we should be cautious.

10 Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

  1. Frequent urination and excessive thirst: Frequent waking night to urinate can be a symptom of diabetes. In this condition, the kidneys work very actively to get rid of excess glucose in the blood. Medium excessive thirst is the body's response to replenish fluids lost from frequent urination. Both of these symptoms go hand in hand as the body's mechanism for lowering blood sugar levels.

  2. Losing weight: high blood sugar, can cause rapid weight loss, say 5-10 kilo for two or three months (but this is not a healthy weight loss). Because insulin is not able to send glucose into cells for use as energy, the body begins to break down the proteins of the muscles as an alternative energy source. The kidneys also work harder to eliminate excess sugar, and causes loss of calories that can harm the kidneys.

  3. Hunger: Excessive hunger is another sign of diabetes. This occurs due to high sugar levels but can not enter the cells to be used in metabolic processes. When blood sugar levels can not enter the cells, the body thinks not get food intake that sends hunger signals to get more glucose so cells can function.

  4. Skin problems: Itchy and dry skin, could be a sign of diabetes. Another example is acanthosis nigricans, the darkening of the skin around the neck or armpits. People who have this condition have undergone a process of insulin resistance although their blood sugar may not be high. 

  5. Slow wound healing: infections, wounds, and bruises that do not heal, are classic signs or symptoms of diabetes. This happens because the veins and arteries damaged by the amount of excess glucose. These conditions make it difficult blood reach areas of the body to facilitate the wound healing process.

  6. Fungal infections: Diabetes will lower the immune system in general. The body becomes susceptible to various infections, including the most common infections such as fungal (Candida). Fungi and bacteria were able to multiply rapidly in an environment rich in sugar. Women, especially, need to guard against candida infections like vaginal discharge.

  7. Fatigue and irritability: People who have high blood sugar levels, will generally feel unwell. Frequent waking at night to urinate, will make the body is not fresh the next day. These conditions make these people become tired and irritable.

  8. Blurred vision: Blurred vision, or sometimes like seeing light flashes, is a direct result of high blood sugar levels. High glucose levels capable of changing the shape of the lens and the eye. The good news is reversible symptoms (get back to normal) when blood sugar levels back or close to normal. However, uncontrolled sugar levels will cause permanent damage, even blindness.

  9. Tingling or numbness: tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, along with a burning pain or swelling are signs that nerves are being damaged by diabetes. If left unchecked, this condition can cause neuropathy (nerve damage) permanent.

  10. Blood test results: Several test methods can be used to check for diabetes, but the results of a single test is never enough to diagnose diabetes (test should be repeated). One test is a fasting plasma glucose test. The test is done to check the blood sugar after an overnight (eight hours) do not eat. Blood glucose above 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) on two different tests will mean diabetes. Normal blood glucose was 99 mg / dL. The blood sugar level of 100 to 125 mg / dL would be considered as prediabetes.


WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria

Taken from wikipedia:

The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) is for a single raised glucose reading with symptoms, otherwise raised values on two occasions, of either:
  • fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or
  • with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl)
A random blood sugar of greater than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dL) in association with typical symptoms or a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %) is another method of diagnosing diabetes. In 2009 an International Expert Committee that included representatives of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) recommended that a threshold of ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %) should be used to diagnose diabetes. This recommendation was adopted by the American Diabetes Association in 2010. Positive tests should be repeated unless the person presents with typical symptoms and blood sugars >11.1 mmol/l (>200 mg/dl).

Threshold for diagnosis of diabetes is based on the relationship between results of glucose tolerance tests, fasting glucose or HbA1c and complications such as retinal problems. A fasting or random blood sugar is preferred over the glucose tolerance test, as they are more convenient for people. HbA1c has the advantages that fasting is not required and results are more stable but has the disadvantage that the test is more costly than measurement of blood glucose. It is estimated that 20% of people with diabetes in the United States do not realize that they have the disease.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. This is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1 in which there is an absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of islet cells in the pancreas and gestational diabetes mellitus that is a new onset of high blood sugars associated with pregnancy. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes can typically be distinguished based on the presenting circumstances. If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to confirm type 2 diabetes, with C-peptide levels normal or high in type 2 diabetes, but low in type 1 diabetes.


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