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Negative Effects Of Nicotine To Human's Health System

One of the substances in cigarettes are known to cause harmful side effects or health risks is nicotine. How long the nicotine is in smoker body's system? Most nicotine is consumed (or approximately 90 percent), rapidly metabolized by the liver and then excreted through the kidneys. The remaining amount of nicotine will remain in the bloodstream for 6-8 hours after smoking. Most adult smokers, surely admit that they feel the effects of cigarette addiction when under the age of 21 years. 

Tobacco is one of the nicotine source material which has a longer history.  Nicotine (Nicotiana tabacum) was found and began to be cultivated in the United States at the beginning of the year 6000 BC, and since that time people have been smoking or chewing the leaves of plants. Tobacco use has been invited controversial even at the beginning of its use.

Just 10 seconds after a smoker inhales cigarette smoke, nicotine is absorbed through the skin and mucous lining in the nose, mouth and lungs, and moves through the bloodstream to the brain. Stimulates the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline, hormones and neurotransmitters considered as adrenaline. This increases the heart rate and blood pressure while constricting the blood vessels, also stimulates the production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that controls the brain happiness center. Inhaling nicotine provide the most rapid effect and not a coincidence because your lungs are filled with millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli. 

The alveoli have a very large surface area, more than 40 times the surface area of ​​your skin so that the lungs are the most efficient way to incorporate nicotine into the bloodstream. Nicotine just stay in the human body for several hours, about one or two hours, which means that six hours after smoking, only about 0031 milligrams of 1 milligram of nicotine left.

Nicotine can also be absorbed through the digestive tract and skin. Here's how smokeless tobacco products such as chewing tobacco, which stick to the skin and gums give driveways nicotine to the body. Once absorbed by the body, an enzyme in the liver breaks down most of the nicotine, about 80 percent. After it became metabolite cotinine. Nicotine is also metabolized to cotinine and nicotine oxide by the lungs. Cotinine and other metabolites excreted in the urine, and are also found in saliva and hair. Cotinine is the body about 16 hours, which means that if you have been smoking, metabolites can be used as a biomarker that will prove that you have consumed in a urine test.

The effects of nicotine on the human body

Why a smoker would want to smoke when they are in an unpleasant mood or in a stressful situation? That's because nicotine can make people feel calmer, causing a feeling of relaxation as well as reducing stress, anxiety and even pain.

Although it appears relaxation, nicotine actually increases the physical stress, the impact is considered slightly paradoxical. This is related to supporting the central nervous system, but depending on the dose because it has been found in some smokers nicotine also acts as a sedative. Some studies, suggest possible that smoking causes a calming effect, because nicotine is actually regarded as a stimulant, not a depressant.

When you first inhale cigarette, nicotine causes the body to release the hormone epinephrine, a hormone the nature of the fight or escape. Epinephrine activates the sympathetic nervous system, making your breathing becomes more rapid and shallow, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.

Nicotine can also cause insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance, as well as an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. It also affects the thyroid hormone, pituitary hormones, sex hormones and adrenal hormones. Insulin resistance in smokers, for example, may be partly because nicotine stimulates the body to produce high levels of adrenal androgens, in other words, nicotine affects the body's metabolism of glucose, causing hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance not only increases the risk of developing diabetes type 2, but also heart disease.

The effects of nicotine on the brain

Exposure to nicotine can alter the workings and functions of your brain. Imagine your brain as a computer. As computers in general, the brain as a processor, storage and use of information. In a computer, the information goes in the form of electrical signals moving through the cable, send the information in a binary process, with switches on or off. In your brain, neurons are the cells that transfer and integrate information. Each neuron receives input from thousands of other neurons throughout the brain, process information and make any necessary adjustments before delivering the message to the rest of the body. While the signal is transmitted through individual neurons in the form of an electric current, a group of chemical process called neurotransmitters that convey such messages between neurons and other cells.

Nicotine also stimulates the release of other neurotransmitters, namely glutamate. Glutamate is involved in learning and memory as well as improving relations between sets of neurons. Strong connections can be a physical basis that we know as memory, and when you use nicotine, glutamate may create a memory loop pleasant feelings you get and further drive the desire to use nicotine.

Nicotine also increases the levels of other neurotransmitters and chemicals that modulate how your brain works. For example, your brain makes more endorphins in response to nicotine. Endorphins are small proteins that are often referred to as a natural painkiller body. It turns out the chemical structure very similar to endorphins function synthetic painkillers like morphine.

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