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Vitamin A Deficiency Signs & Symptoms

Vitamins deficiency in the body will cause several disease with varies symptoms. Signs of vitamin A deficiency in the body are numerous. Symptoms most often found in people who are deficient in vitamin A is the presence of eye diseases or disorders of the eye. For example, night blindness, cataracts, and decreased visibility.

Vitamin A deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries and can occur at any age, especially in infancy. Lack of vitamin A in the body causing a variety of diseases that can lower the immune system. One of the effects of vitamin A deficiency is disorder of the eye that typically occurs in children aged 6 months - 4 years is a major cause of blindness in developing countries.

Vitamin A deficiency signs & symptoms (VAD)

The signs and symptoms of VAD clinical classification of the eye by WHO / UNICEF USAID / HKI / IVACG, 1996 as follows:
- XN: Night blindness
- XIA: conjunctival Xerosis (dryness of the mucous membranes of the eyes)
- XIB: Xerosis conjunctivae with Bitot spots
- X2: Corneal Xerosis (dryness of the eye cornea)
- X3A: Keratomalasia or ulceration of the cornea (corneal ulcer) is less than 1/3 the surface of the cornea
- XS: corneal scarring (sikatriks / scar)
- XF: Fundus xeroftalmia, with images such as "cendol".
XN, XIA, XIB, X2 can usually heal back to normal with good treatment. In stage X2 is an emergency that must be treated immediately because in a few days could turn into X3.
X3B X3A and if untreated can heal but by leaving defects that can even lead to total blindness if the lesion (abnormality) of the cornea is extensive enough to cover the entire cornea (cornea optical zone).


Impact of vitamin A deficiency

Night blindness

One of the early signs of vitamin A deficiency is the inability to adjust for twilight vision from bright light to dim light / dusk, as if entering a dark room from bright rooms.



Changes in eye
Corneas early affected by lack of vitamin A. Tear glands can not secrete tears resulting in drying of the membranes covering the cornea. Symptoms of mild forms called xerosis conjunctiva, which is conjunctiva becomes dry, Bitot's Spot, namely grayish-white spots on the conjunctiva. Symptoms in the form of being called xerosis cornea, which is cornea becomes dry and loses its clarity. The final stage is keratomalasia, which becomes soft and can rupture causing total blindness.


Infection
Decreased immune function in vitamin A deficiency, making it vulnerable to infection. Vitamin A is also known as anti-infection vitamin.



Changes in skin
The skin becomes dry and rough. Hair follicle becomes rough, hardened, and experienced keratinization called follicular hyperkeratosis. First - first exposed arms and legs can then spread throughout the body.


Impaired growth
Lack of vitamin A inhibits the growth of cells - the cells, including the cells - bone cells. The function of the cells - the cells that make up the tooth enamel and occurs atrophy disrupted cells - the cells that form dentin, so the teeth are easily damaged.


Cell keratinization
Keratinization cells - cells flavors on the tongue which leads to reduced appetite and anemia.







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